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Crtiical Appraisal

The following are points to consider when conducting a critical appraisal.

  • Assess risk of bias
  • Assess the validity of the study
  • Is the journal article published in a peer reviewed journal
  • Watch for predatory journals
  • Is the methodology valid?

What is Risk of Bias?

Risk of Bias 

  • Systematic error or deviation from the truth
  • Different types of Bias: Detection, Perception, Selection, etc.
    • Detection Bias - May overestimate or underestimate the size of the effect
    • Perception Bias - Researchers can make assumptions about their research subjects 
    • Selection Bias - Occurs when participants in the study differ systematically from the population of interest
    • Catalogue of Bias - An annotated catalogue of types of bias in research


How do you ensure that there is no risk of bias?

  • Risk of Bias Tools
  • Use at least two reviewers